All input data for * WRspice* is assumed to have been measured at a
nominal temperature of 25C, which can be changed by use of the

This value can further be overridden for any device which models
temperature effects by specifying the `tnom` parameter on the
model itself. The circuit simulation is performed at a temperature of
25C unless overridden by a `temp` parameter on the `.options`
control line. Individual device instances may further override the
circuit temperature through the specification of a `temp`
parameter on the instance.

Temperature dependent support is provided for resistors and semiconductor devices. The details of the temperature adjustments can be found in the description of the models. For details of the BSIM temperature adjustment, see [5] (BSIM1), [6] (BSIM2), and [8] (BSIM3).

Temperature appears explicitly in the exponential terms of the BJT and diode model equations. In addition, saturation currents have a built-in temperature dependence. The temperature dependence of the saturation current in the BJT models is determined by:

where

The temperature dependence of forward and reverse beta is according to the formula:

(*T*_{1}) = (*T*_{0})

where

Temperature dependence of the saturation current in the junction diode model is determined by:

where

Temperature appears explicitly in the value of junction potential,
(in * WRspice*,

(*T*) = *ln*

where

Temperature appears explicitly in the value of surface mobility,
(or `u0`, for the MOSFET models. This temperature
dependence is determined by:

(*T*) =

The effects of temperature on resistors is modeled by the formula:

where